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An antibiotic is a type of antimicrobial used to treat a various bacterial infection as well as to slow down the growth of these infections in the body. Effective antibiotic drugs are prerequisites for both preventive and curative measures, protecting patients from potentially fatal diseases and ensuring that complex procedures, such as surgery and chemotherapy. Disorganised misuse and overuse of these drugs in human medicine and food production have put every nation at risk. Alert to this crisis, the May 2015 World Health Assembly adopted a global action plan on antimicrobial resistance, which outlines five objectives, including optimize the use of antimicrobial medicines in human and animal health and to increase investment in new medicines, diagnostic tools etc.
The global market for antibiotics is witnessing significant growth due to cheap cost and novel approaches for new antibiotics for treating bacterial infections and a large number of clinical trials. So far in 2018, the FDA has licensed new antibiotics, including Arikayce (amikacin liposome inhalation suspension), the first drug to receive approval under the new Limited Population Pathway for Antibacterial and Antifungal Drugs (LPAD), a part of the 21st Century Cures Act. Other notable recent approvals include Paratek’s Nuzyra (omadacycline), Tetraphase’s Xerava (eravacycline), Achaogen’s Zemdri (plazomicin), and Melinta’s Vabomere (meropenem/vaborbactam) and Baxdela (delafloxacin). Additionally, increase in incidence of infectious diseases such as pneumonia, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria are the other factors propelling the market. Furthermore, the generic industries play a major role in the cost reduction of pharmaceutical drugs, which increase the overall higher availability and consumption, worldwide. Most of the prescription drugs that are sold are generics. Some major generic players are Teva, Mylan, Novartis, and Cipla, among others. However, the uncertain regulatory policies are likely to hamper the growth of this vertical impacting market growth significantly. For instance, the U.S. FDA revised the guidance for registration trials for drugs used in the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections.
The report analyses the global antibiotic market based on class, drug origin, spectrum of activity, application, route of administration and geography.
Based on class, the market is classified into beta lactam & beta lactamase inhibitors, quinolones, macrolides, and others. Beta lactam & beta lactamase inhibitors segment is further divided into penicillin, cephalosporin, carbapenem, and monobactam. Penicillin antibacterial drugs were the first drugs of this type that doctors used to treat bacterial infection. Since then, the discovery and manufacture of penicillin have changed the face of medicine, as these drugs have saved millions of lives. This is attributed to its broad-spectrum activity, which heals infections caused due to multiple groups of bacteria. Currently, beta lactams and beta lactamase inhibitors, is poised to experience the highest growth during the forecast period. The high efficacy to treat multiple infections caused due to multiple groups of bacteria and high use of these antibiotic drug to treat therapies for gram negative infections is contributing to the growth of the segment.
Based on the spectrum of activity, the market is bifurcated into broad-spectrum antibiotic and narrow-spectrum antibiotic. The broad-spectrum antibiotic segment held the significant share of the market owing to the fact that broad-spectrum antibiotics act against a wide range of diseases, which in turn helps to battle antimicrobial resistance effectively.
Based on drug origin, the market is bifurcated into natural, semi synthetic and synthetic drug origin. Antibiotics drugs can either occur naturally or can be synthetically produced. Very common today are semi-synthetic modifications of natural compounds. These chemical, biosynthetic antibacterial compounds are classified according to their biological effect on microorganisms. These biosynthetic antibacterial drugs kill bacteria altogether or slow down or stall bacterial growth. One specific semisynthetic antibiotic is Erythromycin.
Antibiotic finds application in human and animal. Antibiotics work against bacteria, regardless of whether the body that bacteria is affecting is a human or an animal. Antibiotics are better for humans, and some are better for animals. On a global scale, the U.S. and China are the largest users of antibiotics for food production. According to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 80 percent of the total antibiotic use in the U.S. is in agriculture, with pigs and poultry receiving five to 10 times more antibiotics than cows and sheep. Additionally, antibiotics are sometimes used to make the animals grow faster. In humans, the side effects of antibiotics such as the risk of weight gain and obesity, has been seen as a positive in animal, with several countries still using antibiotics as growth promoters for animals.
By route of administration, the market is classified into oral, intravenous and others. Generally, oral therapy is used when it is well tolerated and provide an adequate therapeutic effect. Whereas, the intravenous route being reserved usually for patients who have difficulty taking oral medications or when it is desired to provide prompter or greater antimicrobial activity as intravenous antibiotics are administered in higher concentrations, they reach in the tissues faster as compared to oral antibiotics. Rising incidence of severe infections is contributing to the growth of the intravenous segment.
By geography, the global antibiotic market is analysed across key regions such as, North America, Europe, Asia Pacific and Rest of the world. Asia-Pacific has observed a trend of increasing antibiotic utilization in countries such as China and India, having enhanced patient populace where there is a nonstop demand sought after for generic antibiotic. Furthermore, rising awareness regarding the advantages of antibiotics is also likely to drive the market. In North America, number of new drug launches in the market is supplementing the growth of the regional market. The U.S. will be a key revenue contributor in the region during the forecast period as guidelines, such as those defined by IDSA for the treatment of CDI, are promoting the use of novel therapies.
Some of the key players in the market are Abbott laboratories, GlaxoSmithKline Plc, Johnson & Johnson Inc, Merck & Co. Inc, Pfizer Inc., Bayer Healthcare AG, Novartis AG, Sanofi SA, and Roche Holding AG among others. Big pharmaceutical companies are acquiring smaller players with novel antibiotics. For instance, Pfizer acquired Astra Zeneca’s marketed drugs, Zavicefta and Zinforo, and late stage antibiotics, ATM-AVI, resulting in an expanded portfolio of antibiotics. The trend is expected to shape the future of the market.
Antibiotic is a medication used to either inhibit or prevent bacterial infections referred as bacteriostatic and bactericidal antibiotics, respectively. Different types of antibiotics drugs are available in pharmacies and hospitals that are used to treat infectious diseases. The antibiotics market is expected to exhibit significant growth during the forecast period, due to increase in demand for new generation antibiotics that can resolve the issue of antimicrobial resistance. Based on class, the market is classified into beta lactam & beta lactamase inhibitors, quinolones, macrolides, and others. The significant growth of the Beta lactams and beta lactamase inhibitors is attributed to the due to upsurge in demand for broad-spectrum, bactericidal activity. Based on the spectrum of activity, the antibiotic market is bifurcated into broad-spectrum antibiotic and narrow-spectrum antibiotic. Further, by route of administration, the market is classified into oral, intravenous, and others. The market finds application in human and animal. Geographically, Asia-Pacific is expected to remain dominant throughout the forecast period attributable to increasing antibiotic utilization and easy availability of antibiotic drugs.
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